5.2.1. Basic Wildfire Suppression Strategy and Tactics Copy

Jeff Co

Water Delivery

Common Wildland Fire Pumps:

Wajax MK3

Wajax MK 26

Waterous Floto-Pump

Shindaiwa GP45

Most wildland fire pumps are centrifugal and require placement close to the water elevation and priming before they will move water

Forestry Hoses:

Hoses can lined or unlined, (weeping).
Lined hose has friction loss of approx. 2 psi/ 100’.
Unlined hose has friction loss of approx. 4 psi/ 100’.
Econo hose is 15m, (50’), per length. 1” and 1.5” is 30m, (100’), per length.
Hose lays over roads should be protected from vehicle wheels.

Hose/Pump Appliances and Tools:

Each appliance in a water delivery system causes a 5 psi reduction in water pressure.

One-way Back-check Valve:

  • Prevents back-flow
  • Keeps foam out of water source

Three-way Valve:

  • Splits one line into two.
  • Combines two lines into one.


  • Adjustable opening size.
  • Smaller opening = higher pressure.

Water Thief:

  • Water supply tap on main line
  • Install during mainline deployment for later use during mop-up

Hose Strangler:

  • Used to temporarily shut-off water.
  • Use when adding or removing hose lengths or appliances.
  • Eliminates need to shut off pump during hose lay modifications
Methods of Hose Rolling:
Water Tanks:

Used for values protection.
Sprinkler head placement is crucial to obtain maximum wetting and avoid water shadows.
Crews must keep pump adequately fueled and maintain water supply, sometimes for extended periods.

Closed loop hose system, equalizes sprinkler head pressure
Water Tenders

Can deliver water via hoses direct from tank
Can be used to shuttle water from source to tanks near fire

Gravity Water Systems:

Anytime water source, (including tanks or tenders), is at a higher elevation than the fire, gravity can be employed.
0.5 psi gained per foot of elevation drop.
Specialized funnels with hose fittings for use in creeks.
May require a pump to start initial flow.
Leaks in hose system can drain tanks overnight with siphoning action.